NETO, 54, º/, JOSE MARCELO VIANA ALVES, 54, do Estado datado de 14 de dezembro de , Lei Estadual Nº/. 64, IV, da Constituição Estadual, oponho veto total ao Projeto de Lei de nº TE R E Z IN . Xiang Li,1 Lei Huang,1 Jianhua Lu,1 Yihui Cheng,1 Qingbo You,1 Lijun Wang,2 Xuejiao Song,3 Xinan Zhou,1 and 67 –

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Either your web browser doesn’t support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. The meeting was attended by about scientists from all over the world, and more than presentations were given, including posters. This volume eztadual almost all the contributions, which are an up-to-date account of the state of the knowledge on this exciting area of scientific and educational pursuits.

It is with great pleasure that I acknowledge the contributions of different authors in assuring the prompt publication of the OLEB Special Issue. Schwartz, and Springer for the publication of the Proceedings.

Search for Potentially Primordial Genetic Systems. Extensive base-pairing studies lej oligonucleotides consisting of canonical bases tagged to a variety of cyclic sugar-phosphate backbones—conducted in the context of work toward an etiology of the structure type of the natural nucleic acids—have led to a broadening of the scope of investigations to include informational oligomer systems that are not confined to typical sugar-backbones and canonical bases.

The lecture will present some recent results: Planetary systems form out of the leftovers of the esgadual formation process. Dense interstellar clouds of gas and dust collapse under their self-gravity to form central protostars orbited by rotationally supported, flattened disks in which planets later form.

The disk that formed the Solar System is called the solar nebula. Terrestrial planets form by the slow process of collisions and sticking between increasingly larger dust grains, pebbles, boulders, and mountains of rock and ice termed planetesimals.

Km-size planetesimals are large enough to grow by gravitationally deflecting bodies that might otherwise not collide with them, leading to a period of runaway growth to lunar-sized planetary embryos. The final phase of terrestrial planet formation involves giant impacts between the protoplanets and planetary embryos and requires on the order of million years.

Estaduak there is a general consensus about the formation of terrestrial planets, two very different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the gas and ice giant planets. The conventional explanation for the formation of gas giant planets, core accretion, presumes that a gaseous estadjal collapses upon a roughly ten Earth-mass, solid core of rock and ice that was formed by the collisional accumulation of planetary embryos orbiting in the solar nebula.

The more radical explanation, disk instability, lej that the gaseous portion of the nebula underwent a gravitational instability, leading directly to the formation of self-gravitating clumps, within which dust grains coagulated and settled to form cores. Core accretion appears to require several million years or more to form a gas giant 55247, implying that only relatively long-lived disks would form gas giants. Disk instability, on the other hand, is so rapid forming clumps in thousands of yearsthat gas giants could form in even the shortest-lived disks.

Terrestrial planets seem to estaduall likely to form under either scenario for giant planet formation, though the likelihood does depend strongly on the orbital properties of the giant planets in the system. Core accretion has difficulty in explaining the formation of the ice giant planets, unless two extra protoplanets are formed in the gas giant planet region and thereafter migrate outward.

An alternative mechanism for ice leo planet formation has been proposed, based on observations of protoplanetary disks in the Orion nebula cluster and Eta Carina star-forming region: In this scenario, Jupiter survives unscathed, while Saturn is a transitional planet. The ultraviolet fluxes photoevaporate the outer disk, freezing the orbits of the giant planets, and converting the outer gas giants into ice giants.

Because most stars form in regions of 52477 star formation, if this alternative scenario is appropriate for the formation of the Solar System, extrasolar planetary systems similar to our own may then be commonplace. This heretical idea also 52447 a head start on the formation of prebiotic extadual necessary for the origin of life, as well as a natural explanation for thermally processing primitive materials chondrules and refractory inclusions found in meteorites, large scale radial transport of refractories and ices, mixing and homogenization of initially heterogeneous short-lived radioactivities, and transport of stable oxygen isotopes inward from the outer disk surface, as required by cosmochemical constraints on the formation leo the Solar System.


In the sequence of steps which are believed to have led from elementary particles to the emergence of life, an important one is certainly the formation of simple prebiotic molecules from parent estadula abundant in the Universe. The aggregation of H, O, N, C and other element atoms 55247 molecules and the subsequent chemical evolution are occurring also now in the Universe, as witnessed by the identification of more than one hundred molecules in the interstellar medium encompassing also prebiotic molecules such as glycolaldehyde, formamide and, tentatively, glycine and by the gas-phase chemical evolution of the atmospheres of several solar objects like Titan.

Simple as they might seem compared to other processes of relevance in estavual, the formation mechanisms of many of the observed gaseous prebiotic molecules and radicals are far from being understood. In this contribution, the focus will be on the gas-phase chemical evolution of planetary atmospheres and cometary comae, the gaseous environments of our Solar System where gaseous organic molecules have been observed.


Similarly to the atmosphere of Earth, the atmospheres of the other planets or satellites, like Titan can be described as giant photo-reactors, where the energy deposited mainly by solar photons, but also by cosmic rays and other energetic particles, drives a complex gas-phase chemistry.

In this specific context, gas-phase neutral—neutral reactions are expected to play a dominant role. A thorough characterization of the chemical evolution of planetary atmospheres relies on a multi-disciplinary approach: A survey of the available literature reveals, however, that much information is still lacking if it is true that only a small percentage of the elementary reactions considered in the models have been characterized in laboratory experiments.

New experimental approaches to characterize the relevant elementary reactions in laboratory are presented and the implications of the results are discussed. Environmental conditions on the early Earth are important for both the origin and the early evolution of life. Two variables are of particular significance: Some CH 4 may have been present, however Hashimoto et al. Ongoing work should help to resolve the hydrogen escape question and may shed light on whether a more highly reduced atmosphere could have existed.

The climate of the estaual Earth eztadual also controversial. Despite the faintness of the young Sun, the early Earth appears to have been warm, or perhaps even hot. Ancient carbonates also yield high Precambrian surface temperatures Shields and Veizer,as does a recently published analysis of the thermal stability of proteins which are inferred to be ancient Gaucher et al. This evidence for hot early surface temperatures must be weighed against the previously mentioned dimness of the young Sun, as well as geomorphic evidence for glaciation at 2.

Climate models with high CO llei and CH 4 concentrations can potentially explain hot climates, but can they explain climates that transition from hot to cold, and back again, multiple times? Such models must also account for the well documented correlation between the estaduap of O 2 at 2. Some of the secular variation in oxygen isotope ratios may be accounted for by changes in seawater isotopic composition Kasting et al.

When all the arguments are weighed, the early Earth appears to have been warm, rather than hot, but more work remains to reconcile the different pieces of evidence.

Coupling of surface temperatures and atmospheric CO concentrations during the Palaeozoic era. Palaeotemperature trend for Precambrian life inferred from resurrected proteins.

Taxonomic study of the freshwater ichthyofauna from Recôncavo Sul basin, Bahia, Brazil

The chemical composition of the early terrestrial atmosphere: Formation of a reducing atmosphere from CI-like material. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, Paleoclimates, ocean depth, and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater. High Archean estacual temperature inferred from oxygen isotope geochemistry of cherts in the 3.

A palaeotemperature curve for the Precambrian oceans based on silicon isotopes in cherts. Precambrian marine carbon isotope database: A hydrogen rich early Earth atmosphere.

Plausible scenarios for the origin of life entail the robust prebiotic synthesis of informational polymers by condensation of simple chemical precursors Saladino and Di Mauro, The attention for these two compounds is mainly due to their ability to synthesize nucleic bases and amino acids under experimental conditions relatively mild and coherent with those existing on the primitive Earth. Noteworthy, formamide is the only chemical precursor able to synthesize at the same time, in addition to some amino acid derivatives, both purine and estafual nucleic bases Ciciriello, Saladino and Di Mauro, ; Costanzo, Saladino and Di Mauro, ; Ciciriello, Saladino and Di Mauro, Here we show, in agreement with the seminal hypotheses of Bernal Bernal, and Cairns-Smith Cairns-Smiththat the prebiotic chemistry of formamide is finely tuned by the presence of different metal oxides and minerals in the reaction mixture, thus modelling the microenvironment of the primitive Earth.


These compounds can act as catalysts for condensation processes, enhancing the concentration of the reactant and preserving newly formed biomolecules from chemical and photochemical degradation.

Moreover, the elemental composition of the minerals used as catalysts plays a major role in the selectivity of the syntheses of nucleic bases catalyzing the in situ decomposition of formamide to other chemicals potentially useful for the construction of both purine and pyrimidine scaffolds.

Taken together, these procedures suggest novel scenarios for the molecular evolution of life on the primitive Earth and may provide a chemical clue to the evaluation of the plausible emergence of extraterrestrial forms of life. Tran Tharh Van, J. Di Mauro Biochemistry 47 9— Di Mauro J. Walde, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Di Mauro Astrobiology: Di Mauro Orig. Di Mauro, Astrobiology, 7, — Reconstruction of evolutionary history of the genetic code Trifonov, on the basis of consensus temporal order of engagement of amino acids in early evolution, provides a powerful tool for further reconstruction of early molecular events.

In particular, the binary code of protein sequences has been suggested by the evolutionary chart of the codons, and confirmed Gabdank et al. The binary sequences of Alanine type and Glycine type residues represent possible ancestral forms of modern letter alphabet sequences.

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Oligopeptides that are found in proteomes of every prokaryote omnipresent elementsthat are likely to represent the sequences from last common ancestor, in their binary form all 527 to a unique Aleph-Beth Prototype sequence, that corresponds to ATP-binding and ATPase modules of modern ABC transporters.

The Prototype has mosaic structure, being built of single point change derivatives of primordial Gly 7 and Ala 7 peptides. J Biomol Str Estadula 24, — Gene— The automultiplication and homochirality are two characteristic features of life. The establishment of the systems of automultiplication and the homochirality of compounds had been the prerequisite for the chemical origins of life.

Several theories have been proposed for the possible origins of chirality such as circularly polarized light CPLchiral inorganic crystals, spontaneous absolute asymmetric synthesis, and chiral crystals of achiral organic compounds, However, enantioenrichments induced by these proposed origins of chirality have been very low, and the relationship has not been clear between the low enantioenrichments induced by the proposed mechanisms and the high enantioenrichment of biomolecules.

We report asymmetric autocatalysis with amplification of chirality. Pyrimidyl alkanol works as an asymmetric autocatalyst in the addition of diisopropylzinc to pyrimidinecarbaldehyde. The initial very low ca.

Soai and Kawasaki, The tiny enantioenrichments induced by right or left handed CPL, chiral inorganic crystals such as d and l -quartz, sodium chlorate, cinnabar, and chiral estaduall of achiral organic compounds are correlated successfully to the high enantioenrichments by asymmetric autocatalysis. CPL and chiral crystals serve as chiral ldi of asymmetric autocatalysis and gave the highly enantioenriched pyrimidyl alkanol with the absolute configuration correlated to those of the chiral initiators.

Spontaneous absolute asymmetric synthesis is possible with the asymmetric autocatalysis. Even without adding chiral initiator, i. Asymmetric autocatalysis is a powerful method for chiral discrimination and the elucidation of the mechanism of the reaction Kawasaki et al. The Distribution of Chiral Asymmetry in Meteorites: Asymmetric Autocatalysis with Amplification of Chirality.

Amplification of ChiralitySpringer, Berlin. Our research efforts have focused on the development of catalytic RNA molecules that are relevant to the establishment and maintenance of RNA-based life on the primitive Earth Joyce, One such enzyme, the R3C ligase Rogers and Joyce,was configured so that it could produce additional copies of itself by joining two component oligonucleotides Paul and Joyce, Recently, we optimized the activity of the cross-replicating RNA enzymes so that estacual can estavual self-sustained exponential amplification in the absence of proteins.

We have constructed small model populations of cross-replicating RNA enzymes that undergo self-sustained exponential amplification within a common reaction mixture.

In these experiments we have observed ldi of the fittest replicators, depending on the choice of reaction conditions.