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For example, ERS-1 data, having nominal resolution of 28 meters in range and azimuth, is delivered with Back to Radar Courses.

Their use, duplication, and disclosure are subject to the restrictions stated in the license agreement. Independence of solar illumination Independence of cloud coverage Control of emitted electromagnetic radiation Control of imaging geometry Access to different parameters compared to optical systems Access to information about subsurface features Radar principles Real Aperture Radar RAR Real Aperture Radar: The plunger is a source of waves analogous to those from a radar.

Synthetic Aperture Radar uses signal processing to synthesise an aperture that is hundreds of times longer than the actual antenna by operating on a sequence of signals recorded in the system memory.

SAR processing The objective of SAR processing is to reconstruct the imaged scene from the many pulses reflected by each single target, received by the antenna and registered in memory.

Back to Radar Courses. By convention, pixel spacing in SAR imagery is chosen to conform to standard map scales, hence must be a discrete multiple or divisor of metres.

The boat corresponds to a target appearing to move through the antenna beam as the radar moves past. Cours d’Initiation au Traitement des Donnes de Tldtection. This change is explained also by the Doppler effect which among others is used to focus the signals in the azimuth processor. SAR Principle A synthetic aperture is produced by using the forward motion of the radar.


Short microsecond high energy pulses are emitted and the returning echoes recorded, providing information on: Synthetic Aperture Radars were developed as a means of overcoming the limitations of real aperture radars. The difference lies in the resolution of the along-track, or azimuth direction.

At position B, a passenger on the boat would count the same wave number as emitted, since he is moving neither toward nor away from the waves source. It is not an all seeing eye, and can easily mislead those who do not understand its controls, allow for its limitations, or interpret its picture.

Radar course – understand and operate your radar set | Coastguard Boating Education

This is complicated however by the fact that these Doppler histories are range dependent, so azimuth compression must have the same range dependancy. The first of these is the relatively straightforward one of range focussing, requiring the de-chirping of the received echoes. As it passes a given scatterer, many pulses are reflected in sequence. This leads to a phase model of the signals that is equivalent to the Doppler model.

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Radar sensors are usually divided into two groups according to their radaar of operation. Cruising boats increasingly have radar on board. Due to the look angle of about 23 degrees in the case of ERS, the imaged area is located some km to the right of the subsatellite track.

In the SAR image, courrs direction of the satellite’s movement is called azimuth direction, while the imaging direction is called range direction. We’re sorry, our website requires JavaScript to be enabled so you can browse, shop or access any of your member benefits on our website.

Such a record is called the Doppler history or phase history of the returned signals. It is necessary also to make various corrections to the data for sensor motion and Earth rotation for example, as well as for the changes in target range as the sensor flies past it.


These waves travel at a known speed. It can be considered as a two-dimensional focussing operation.

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The basic principle of a radar is transmission and reception of tldtecyion. When the target tldtectuon entering the beam, the Doppler shift is positive because the source to target distance is decreasing.

SAR processing is a simple process although it requires much computation. The spacecraft is flying in its orbit and carries a SAR sensor which points perpendicular to the flight direction.

On the contrary, at position Tldtectiob, the boat is moving away from the buoy and the apparent frequency is lower: The phase history is then stored to be used during the SAR processing.

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The nominal azimuth resolution for a SAR is cous of the real antenna size, although larger resolution may be selected so that other aspects of image quality may be improved. Even more fundamental, at least two pixels are required to represent each resolution cell, which is a consequence of digital sampling rules.

Please try again later. We are interested in the appearance of this wave field at a certain distance. Radar Course 2 chapters.