un vehículo con etanol Colombiano de caña de azúcar. Promedio = promedio áreas agrícolas y áreas de acceso limitado (áreas naranja). Fuente: CUE. .. La fibra y la cáscara son recogidas y se emplean como combus- tible en la caldera. Sin embargo, la producción de biodiésel a partir de las fuentes antes . características que el etanol para su uso como combustibles, por lo que en el cáscara de cacahuate porcentajes de degradación superiores al 80 % para la mayoría hongo en agar PDA (colonias de color naranja con un micelio más bien. Producción de bioetanol a partir de la fermentación alcohólica de jarabes glucósados derivados de cascaras de naranja y piña. L Tejeda, C Tejada, A Villabona.
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Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion ; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual. Agua emulsionada en el combustible reduce sustancialmente dichas emisiones, lograndose ademas, en la mayoria de los casos, un ahorro neto en el consumo de combustible. Se muestran los efectos beneficos de quemar el aceite combustible residual en forma de emulsion, asi como el metodo para producir una emulsion adecuada.
La tecnologia del combustible emulsionado ofrece una opcion de bajo costo para reducir la contaminacion atmosferica. La calidad del aceite combustible residual ha estado declinando durante las ultimas decadas debido: Al aumento en la produccion de petroleos crudos pesados generalmente con cscara contenido de asfaltenos y df azufre.
A menor disponibilidad de residuos de la destilacion al vacio debido a su conversion a productos de mayor valor. Al aumento en el contenido de vanadio y de otros metales a medida que aumenta la concentracion de asfaltenos.
El uso de aceite combustible emulsionado proporciona un medio eficaz y economico para reducir sustancialmente las emisiones nocivas a la atmosfera.
Cuando las gotas de aceite combustible atomizado llegan a la camara de combustionel agua esmulsionada en ellas se convierte instantaneamente en vapor de alta presion, ocasionando una violenta atomizacion secundaria.
El efecto de esta atomizacion. Diesel oil combustion in fluidized bed; Combustion de xe diesel en lecho fluidizado. The effect of the fluidized bed depth in the combustion in burning diesel oil in a fluidized bed, was analyzed. A self sustained combustion was achieved injecting the oil with an injector that utilized a principle similar to an automobile carburetor venturi.
Three different depths were studied and it was found that the deeper the bed, the greater the combustion efficiency. The diminution in the efficiency was mainly attributed to unburned hydrocarbons and to the carbon carried over, which was observed in the black smoke at the stack outlet.
Other phenomena registered were the temperature gradient between the lower part of the bed and the upper part, caused by the fluidization velocity; additionally it was observed that the air employed for the oil injection carbureting air is the most important parameter to attain a complete combustion.
Se logro combustion autosostenida inyectando el aceite con un inyector que utilizo un principio similar al venturi del carburador de automovil. Se paftir tres diferentes profundidades del lecho y se encontro que a mayor profundidad del lecho, mayor eficiencia de la combustion.
La disminucion de la eficiencia se atribuyo, principalmente, a los hidrocarburos no quemados y al carbon arrastrado, lo cual se observo en el humo negro a la salida de bioetanoll chimenea. Otros fenomenos registrados paetir el gradiente de temperatura entre la parte baja del lecho y la parte superior causado por la velocidad de fluidizacion; ademas, se observo que el aire cawcara para inyectar el aceite aire de carburacion es el parametro mas importante para lograr una combustion completa.
El biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla como combustible alternativo para motores diesel. El aceite usado de motor como combustible alternativo. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden.
La mayor dificultad para partirr uso del biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla en motores es su alta viscosidad.
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Sin embargo este biocombustible presenta excelentes propiedades de flujo a baja temperatura valores bajos para los puntos de nube y fluidez. Se lograron rendimientos de biodiesel de Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue. Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities xascara future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier i.
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Radioactivity of combustion residues from coal-fired power stations. Each year in Germany, about 18 mill. They are utilized to a great extent in the construction industry and in mining. During the combustion of coal, the radio-nuclides remain predominantly in the ash. The radionuclide concentration in lignite ash is within the range cascarq that in natural soil.
The combustion residues of bituminous coal contain radio-nuclides of a similar order of magnitude as also can occur in natural rock. The utilization of combustion residues in construction materials makes a negligible contribution to radiation exposure through retention in buildings.
The physicochemical characteristics of crude oil were: The fatty acid composition of seed oil was studied by gas-liquid chromatography.
Major fatty acids of seed oil were: Total and phytic jaranja phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polysaccharides contents are reported. Unburned carbon in combustion residues from mainly solid biofuels. Unburned carbon in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels is investigated using several methods of analysis a.
The results are used to discuss the distribution of unburned carbon bioetano the residues from the different combustion plants and its nature organic or elemental.
The consequences of the elemental nature of carbon for environmental properties of the residue are noted.
Estudios sobre semilla de Hypochaeris variegata L. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polisaccharides non presence of starch contents are reported. Semillas de Hypochaeris variegata L. The primary purpose of this document is to present an evaluation methodology developed by the EPA for making determinations about environmental releases from encapsulated products containing coal combustion residuals.
Fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustion residues for secondary pavements. The United States produced nearly million tons of coal combustion products in These by-products include fly ash, flue gas desulphurization materials, bottom ash, boiler slag, and other power plant by-products. The expense associated with waste disposal, lack of disposal sites, and significant environmental damage linked with the disposal of coal combustion residues have encouraged innovative utilization strategies such as the fluidized bed combustion FBC unit.
This paper presented the results of a laboratory investigation that examined the properties of composites developed with different proportions of pre-conditioned FBC spent bed, pulverized coal combustion fly ash, natural fine aggregate, and Portland cement. The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the by-product composites could replace currently used materials in secondary roads.
The paper presented the research objectives and experimental programs, including matrix constituent and proportions; mixture proportions; and mixing, curing, sampling, and testing. The discussion of results centered around compressive strength and expansion by internal sulfate attack. It was concluded that with proper proportioning, by-products of pulverized and fluidized bed combustion promote binding of sand particles and provide adequate strength under various curing and moisture conditions 4 refs.
Thermogravimetric investigation of the co- combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite. Co- combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis TGA.
The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout.
With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co- combustion stage. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy This page contains documents related to the evaluation of coal combustion residual beneficial use of fly ash concrete and FGD gypsum wallboard including the evaluation itself and the accompanying appendices.
Management of high sulfur coal combustion residuesissues and practices: Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database. The abstract is attached.
Characterization, leachability and valorization through combustion of residual chars from gasification of coals with pine. This paper presents the study of the combustion of char residues produced during co-gasification of coal with pine with the aim of characterizing them for their potential use for energy.
These residues are generally rich in carbon with the presence of other elements, with particular concern for heavy metals and pollutant precursors, depending on the original fuel used. The results showed that the residues present quite low toxicity for some of pollutants.
However, depending on the fuel used, possible presence of other pollutants may bring environmental risks. The utilization of these char residues for energy was in this study evaluated, by burning them as a first step pre-treatment prior to landfilling. The thermo-gravimetric analysis and ash fusibility studies revealed an adequate thermochemical narsnja, without presenting any major operational risks.
Fluidized bed combustion was applied to char residues. It was found that the char tendency for releasing SO 2 during its oxidation was lower than for the parent coal, while for NO X paryir, the trend was observed to increase NO X formation. However, for both pollutants the same control techniques might be applied during char combustionas for coal.
Furthermore, the leachability of ashes resulting from the combustion of char residues appeared to be lower than those produced from direct coal combustion. Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents. This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site RFETS during the machining of plutonium metal.
Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes 1 the sorting and shredding of materials, 2 a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, 3 an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and 4 packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory LANL in this study was to csscara parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps.
Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride CCl 4 was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl 4. Three types of plutonium bioetabol were oxidized with steam in a Ccascara glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization.
Morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources? Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residuewood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy TEM. Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were pxrtir organic matter OM in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in iboetanol phase.
Chemical analysis of solid cascada from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation.
This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residueit was necessary to develop two methods.
The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion Method 1while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. Method calibration was naranha on sets of 12 Method 1 and 6 Method 2 certified reference materials CRM.
CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation naanja linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty casccara methods for each analyte separately was assessed. Narxnja methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples.
The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales.